In the Electromagnetic (EM) surveys an artificial electromagnetic field is generated and penetrated into the ground using the transmitter coils and the response of the ground to this EM Induction is recorded using the receiver coil spaced at a fixed configuration. Different set of frequencies and configurations are used as per desired depth of penetration and resolutions. Main components of the EM instrument are a transmitter (for the generation of primary field) and receiver (measurement of the induced secondary field).
Low frequency EM systems are used for detecting large sized undergroround objects such as caves, abandoned sites etc. The high frequency EM is most suitable best for detecting smaller targets buried at shallower depth, waste sites, landfills etc.
Major Applications of EM