Spontaneous Potential or Self-potential surveys are conducted mainly for detecting the seepage or leakage from engineering structures like dams, dikes, landslide zones, canals wiers etc. SP Surveys have also been effectively used for mineral exploration and fault mappings.
In SP Surveys voltages caused by the flow of fluid through the porous medium and ion exchange between the fluid and surrounding soil are measured. The anomalies in the voltage are mapped to obtain information on the location, flow intensity, depths and geometry of sub-surface flow routes. Using the SP Surveys the maps of the flow paths are prepared for treatment of leakage or seepages in the engineering structures. Post treatment, such as grouting etc, the SP Surveys is repeated to assess the effectiveness of the treatment and map the seepage / leakage, if any.
The Streaming potential surveys are generally supplemented with complementary resistivity imaging surveying for confirmation of results and obtain detailed and desired information about the seepage / leakage paths.